Chemical elements
    Physical Properties
    Chemical Properties
      Cerous hydride
      Cerous fluoride
      Cerous chloride
      Cerous oxychloride
      Cerous bromide
      Cerous iodide
      Cerous perchlorate
      Cerous bromate
      Cerous iodate
      Cerous oxide
      Cerous sesquioxide
      Cerous hydroxide
      Cerous sulphide
      Cerous persulphide
      Cerous oxysulphide
      Cerous sulphite
      Cerous sulphate
      Cerous dithionate
      Cerous selenite
      Cerous selenate
      Cerous chromate
      Cerous molybdate
      Cerous tungstate
      Cerous nitride
      Cerous nitrite
      Cerous nitrate
      Cerous hypophosphite
      Cerous orthophosphate
      Cerous vanadate
      Cerous carbide
      Cerous silicide
      Cerous carbonate
      Cerous thiocyanate
      Cerous platinocyanide
      Cerous oxalate
      Cerous silicate
      Ceric fluoride
      Ceric chloride
      Ceric iodate
      Ceroceric oxide
      Ceroceric hydroxide
      Ceric oxide
      Cerium dioxide
      Ceric hydroxide
      Perceric hydroxide
      Ceric hydrosulphate
      Ceric sulphate
      Ceric selenite
      Ceric chromate
      Ceric molybdate
      Ceric nitrate
      Ceric ammonium nitrate
      Ceric orthophosphate
      Ceric dihydrogen arsenate
      Ceric carbonate
      Perceric carbonate
      Ceric acetate
      Ceric oxalate
      Ceric acetylacetonate
      Ceric borate
    PDB 1ak8-1n65

Cerous sulphate, Ce2(SO4)3

In 100 parts of ice-cold water 40 parts of cerous sulphate can be dissolved. The specific heat (0°to 100°) of the anhydrous sulphate is 0.1168.

Cerous sulphate forms numerous hydrates. The existence of hydrates with 4H2O, 5H2O, 8H2O, 9H2O, and 12H2O is definitely established, but the existence of the hydrate with 6H2O is very doubtful.

Solubility of cerous sulphate
Solubility of the hydrates of cerous sulphate in water
The various hydrates may be obtained as follows: - The dodecahydrate, Ce2(SO4)3.12H2O, separates from a concentrated solution of cerous sulphate over sulphuric acid at 0°C. in the form of tiny needles. The enneahydrate, Ce2(SO4)3.9H2O, is prepared by evaporating the aqueous solution at 40°-45°, and forms hexagonal prisms. The octahydrate, Ce2(SO4)3.8H2O, is best prepared by warming to 45°-50° a solution of the sulphate that was saturated at 0° C. The pentahydrate, Ce2(SO4)3.5H2O, is obtained by preparing a cold saturated solution and heating it to 70°-100°, and forms monoclinic prisms. The tetrahydrate, Ce3(SO4)3.4H2O, is conveniently prepared by agitating the enneahydrate with a little water at 70° for 48 hours, and drying the mass at the same temperature.

The octahydrate has been generally regarded as crystallising in the orthorhombic system; but according to Wyrouboff, whose view is adopted by Groth, the crystals are triclinic and devoid of all elements of symmetry (a:b:c = 1.0650:1:1.1144, α = 90°52', β = 90°40', γ = 91°45'). Kammelsberg has described a monoclinic octahydrate, isomorphous with the octahydrates of the other metals.

The solubilities of the various hydrates, in grams of anhydrous sulphate per 100 grams of water, are given in the accompanying table (Koppel) and represented graphically in fig., from which the stable hydrate at any temperature is readily seen. It will be noticed that solubilities have been determined even where the hydrates are metastable in contact with the solution.

The acid sulphate, Ce(HSO4)3, is known.

The following double salts with alkali sulphates have been described: - Ce2(SO4)3.K2SO4.2H2O; 2Ce2(SO4)3.3K2SO4, and with 8H2O; Ce2(SO4)3.2K2SO4.2H2O; Ce2(SO4)3.3K2SO4; Ce2(SO4)3.5K2SO4. Ce2(SO4)3.Na2SO4.2H2O; Ce2(SO4)3.(NH4)2SO4.8H2O, and anhydrous; Ce2(SO4)3.5(NH4)2SO4.

They are sparingly soluble in water and practically insoluble in saturated solutions of the corresponding alkali sulphates.

The diminution in the solubility of cerous sulphate in water, caused by the presence of various alkali sulphates, is as follows (data represent grams of anhydrous salt present in solution per 100 grams of water): -

Temp. 16° C.Temp. 19° C.Temp. 16° C.
0.0010.750.009.650.0010 75

Cerous ammonium sulphate, Ce2(SO4)3,(NH4)2SO4

Cerous ammonium sulphate, Ce2(SO4)3.(NH4)2SO4.8H2O, is a monoclinic salt of density 2.523. It loses 6H2O at 100°, and the remaining 2H2O at 150°. The solubility, in grams of Ce2(SO4)3.(NH4)2SO4 per 100 grams of water, is as follows (Wolff): -

Temp. °C22.3°35.1°45.2°
Grains of Ce2(SO4)3.(NH4)2SO45.335.184.99

Above 45° the anhydrous double salt is the stable phase in contact with the solution, and its solubility is as follows (Wolff): -

Temp. °C45°55.3°75.4°82.2°
Grams of Ce2(SO4)3.(NH4)2SO4.2.992.241.481.18

The sulphates of hydrazine and hydroxylamine combine with cerous sulphate.

Cerous thallous sulphate, Ce2(SO4)3,Tl2SO4

Cerous thallous sulphate, Ce2(SO4)3.Tl2SO4.4H2O, crystallises in monoclinic prisms (a:b:c = 1.1309:1:0.7059, β = 91°53'). The salt Ce2(SO4)3.3Tl2SO4. H2O has also been described.

Cerous cadmium sulphate, Ce2(SO4)3,CdSO4

Cerous cadmium sulphate, Ce2(SO4)3.CdSO4.6H2O, crystallises in the orthorhombic system (a:b:c = 1.1336:1:0.7535).

Cerous nitratosulphate, Ce(NO3)(SO4)

Cerous nitratosulphate, Ce(NO3)(SO4).H2O, crystallises out when a solution of cerous sulphate in concentrated nitric acid is evaporated on the steam-bath.
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